Soil in the garden consists of three main layers. These are the surface layer, the layer of decomposition of organic matter and humus layer. Each has its role in the process of growth and maturation of plants and is therefore very important, if the soil structure allows it, the less you disturb the layers.
If the soil is poor in humus, compressed and difficult to process, it requires additional cultural practices that will contribute to improving the water-air system and improve soil fertility and structure.
The first, surface layer is a protective covering of organic waste that can make leaves, cut grass and rough compost. This layer is a barrier that prevents evaporation and contributes to weed suppression. In the deeper layer is the disintegration and decomposition of organic matter. The work performed by bacteria, protozoa, algae, lichens, etc.. These organisms are extremely sensitive and for their survival in the soil is necessary enough moisture, heat and ventilation. In dry land, the processes of decomposition of organic matter and humus production which is essential for growth and fruiting plants is interrupted. The humus layer goes to a depth of 20 to 30 cm, depending on the substrate. The existence of a sufficient quantity of humus in this layer contributes to:
- Early ripening fruit,
- Increasing plant resistance to powdery mildew, downy mildew, rot, scab and sooty,
- Increasing the content of vitamin C in fruits,
- A better morphological appearance and development of plants,
- Increase yield by up to 30% and
- The plants easier to recover from transplanting.Each garden is unique not only by position, slope, insolation, but also in composition. Most are not ideal and does not contain a sufficient amount of organic fertilizer needed to produce vegetables and other plants, so they need to be added to the soil.
It is a great happiness for every gardener if has compost from organic production.